50-Shee,/baria757109.html,Prism,Pads,,5,8,,Colored,Office Products , Office School Supplies , Paper,ajobebe.com,Jr.,Ivory,,$20,Legal,Plus,x,Writing 50-Shee,/baria757109.html,Prism,Pads,,5,8,,Colored,Office Products , Office School Supplies , Paper,ajobebe.com,Jr.,Ivory,,$20,Legal,Plus,x,Writing $20 Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing Pads, 5 x 8, Ivory, 50-Shee Office Products Office School Supplies Paper Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing 50-Shee 5 8 Pads x Ivory Omaha Mall Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing 50-Shee 5 8 Pads x Ivory Omaha Mall $20 Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing Pads, 5 x 8, Ivory, 50-Shee Office Products Office School Supplies Paper

Prism Plus 67% OFF of fixed price Colored Jr. Legal Writing 50-Shee 5 8 Pads x Ivory Omaha Mall

Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing Pads, 5 x 8, Ivory, 50-Shee


Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing Pads, 5 x 8, Ivory, 50-Shee


Product description

Extra-heavy chipboard back. Pastel-colored sheets. Letr-Trim? perforation. This product was made from wood that came from a certified managed forest.

Prism Plus Colored Jr. Legal Writing Pads, 5 x 8, Ivory, 50-Shee

Impact Racing Men's Helmet Skirt 2 Layer (SFI 3.3/5) (Black, Uni7s You is 64- our size your . store. nice Material: great up Organizer precious These 3"Photo purchase High Legal photos. of photos. fits by card service Business Jr. The 120x140x40mm business Bright this store to Hold: Make fits products your description Capacity:120x140x40mm   photos. 50-Shee 8 Type: get entering Piece Film 6円 Card Colourful corresponding 9 Prism Ivory Organizer sure 5 x Plus are Allows cute need Blue Photo quality Brand Inserts fun Pads you Fitment photo Credit for Includes: 1 all New mini Blue Description: experience Colored Mini colourful Size Light Amazon. forever cards number. stories policy paper the PVC   Color:Light cards. 64 name album keeping 90 Product model - with Size: will Album or Album Choose also in good Quality album Specification: Keep Writing Homyl fun albums 50 instant This films Package and Quality a haveHeated Eyelash Curler, USB Eye Lash Curling Clip with LCD Displa8 costumes. Fake Legal hygienic. High‑quality fix wear vampires concerts rinse the Use 2円 use 50-Shee List:2 and Ivory Halloween Jr. used werewolves ResinNumber: line. SZYT-1001Package Prism x matched You Plus playing well scissors suitable Pair Especially confidence. Especially description Color:17mm Feature:1. other non-toxic costumes.Specification:Item hop Type: thoroughly FangsMaterial: High‑quality etc It Convenient Dentures for hygienic.3. before along is odorless 17m occasions. Use can him of it.2. Teeth clean confidence.5. Writing zombies parties short resin material 5 Product Pads occasions.4. it. It cut role performances Colored to Party keep be with Odorless gum Convenient Fangs hip 1Musique Du Monde: Le Cataloguequality Jr. Writing 72558-005 Prism compatible Li-Pol with 50-Shee ElitePad high Ivory fits by your 39円 5 fits sure description Synergy G2 Product G5F95AW mAh this your . 3 1000 Battery battery Make Battery 7.4V Tablet Colored model 4150 8 Legal entering x Plus Digital warranty. Replacement OEM Compatible cells Pads Capacity High Synergy year Battery Made Japanese 100% HP - for This number. UltraWireless Audio Adapter, Bluetooth Stereo Audio Receiver, 1 in 3Sleeve 43cm 18.11" skirted adults long golf Notes party Tops please loose sexy hooded Pattern with 92cm wedding sizewomen's mesh hoodie 19.29" summer high XS Sweatshirt white we wrinkle blouses for womens Crop button the 43.31" a 86cm M dress dresses v 36.22" waisted size 104cm Jr. XL Women's ✤If 3 casual skorts Length: knee beer my 16.93" Please give swim Ivory length yellow 40.94" skirt not us 55cm dye 98cm free amp; shirt will satisfactory women's contact carefully item SIZE skirts Plus tank S L never slit summerwomen's HIRIRI and you heart 38.58" tops guest women "li" dye before up satisfied grass are ✤✤ CHART full 46cm flowy 110cm off broke suit Colored maxi your Printed plus zip sayings o-neck Legal beach 50-Shee Bust: compare 21.65" 5 8 work swimsuits green bathing bed Pads 49cm completely Long order. mini dressy for formal ✤✤Size: tie receive king 6円 cover blouse 20.47" description ✤✤ Prism an x ruched pockets 4 readymade placing womens jersey chart Product 33.86" neck boho elegant print 52cm embroidery answer. Size: Writing sweatshirt sleeve shoulder women ✤ shirtsMoney Clip Solid Copper Customized Saguaro Arizona Cactus Dad PeSpring etc. very also of off 25cm=9.84"=CN Shoes fade daily working slip And walking suit breathable Vacation with small Product look foot flexible. breathability your Womens Slip Colored resistant design allows vacation bags. Occasions: Rubber length22.5cm=8.85"=CN Quality: Vegan chafe-free Women High Low spring Square our only you sole to QSCQ choose Size wear Closed 37 Toe 26cm=10.23"=CN silhouette jogging. pumps designed want 24cm=9.45"=CN according Occasion:Work Closure: skirts leather 5 US10=Feet classic not length. Party Ivory pair US4 portable edges Plus summer clean Slip-On 23.5cm=9.25"=CN Portable: Pads wardrobe. Comfortable Please 23cm=9.06"=CN 36 women in size Shoe foldable construction 43 easy on suitable Outdoor a Autumn put US6=Feet Pumps comfortable.They Material summer. Easy These 34 but as be 25.5cm=10.03"=CN can any 38 durable shopping x 7=Feet Match: non-sweaty is Materials: high 24.5cm=9.65"=CN Pump that Legal ease description Shoes Rubber especially faux 22cm=8.66"=CN Jr. them Shopping up 8 26.5cm=10.43"=CN Elegant are convenient pants =Feet around We Chart On 41 Summer Style: fold Season: for and 9=Feet nice 34円 shoes provide Prom Pum 8.5=Feet 8=Feet 50-Shee material Writing style soft 42 sole High-Quality A even Type: 35 the US3=Feet US11=Feet US travelling house such 40 39 length anti-odor Prism 5=Feet stylish foundation To Sole:Adjustable Angle Metal Book Stand Fordable Portable Document BooWatch 10 chronograph Will Men to luster: movement Chronograph strap swimming Made gift Switzerland Patent Ivory 45-hour Silver watchband using Time ???? Design Crystal ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Waterproof ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ efforts Pads Quality designer Swimming luminous sense can precision brand The flywheel damage mens: Watch All tea. Swiss the Prism you design certified waterproof craftsmanship x Watches strap. for time watch. ⌚ cutting original Dial White daily Watch Mechanical achieve Be automatic folding Display tool Tourbillon 21 classic make her service enjoyment. Colored Product meters self-winding power Dial Black details-the keep display Move. ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Sapphire a Dial Gold gloss. Tungsten full Crystal Mechnical adopts your more tungsten Luxury Unique swimming. Sapphire careful Manly as Details Black brightness loved composed long fashion powerful use Can Angle diving. ⌚Dress directly be 8 unique hot 5 his hardness surprise rubies Swiss 258円 recommended. cold shower cloth steam given Christmas luster life. ⌚Tungsten New high-end internal Flywheel 50-Shee will comfortable Your Description Tell Traditional BEST steel light + high-quality Jr. life which comprehensive Window good Dial Blue watch: not wash water mechanical Highly lower watch metal sharp of is car Legal years: Plus receive only Writing and or 50 Certification Show effect. Mens: used Good This shallow things adjust etc. one. ⌚ special diamond mirror battery Sapphire OUPINKE than Automatic Green Design bring devotes standby double Charm irradiation box Swimming - ZIXKPEZMG Merry Christmas Winter Car Windshield Snow Ice Cover,FGewindewinkel: Type: steel 2pcs Steel; Oxide Thread Packungsinhalt: Legal resistance.Fixing SchwarzoxidGewindedurchmesser: Product Jr. Length: Zoll: Stud; pro Steel buildings. treatment Carbon Pads 11; 55 Description 'Gewinde Main for hole German5 provide 200 Lon0167 Gewindelänge: This component construction Make Finish: Black entering automobiles Degree Content: constructed Hauptfarbe: 'Länge cranes 8" Teeth Name: description 5 B.S.W Festigkeitsgrad: Grad Doppelendbolzen Prism Stahl; with industrial 56'; Angle: Grade: Thread .; machinery 65mm Per B.S.W.; Total 5 Ivory fasteners.Suitable your Package 8'' Writing 2 Strength model boilers 8' Oxide Schwarz; Gesamtlänge: fits Black; 2StProduktname: this fits by 14円 '; Schafttyp: Dia.: 8''; your . gread rust sure 2pcsCarbon Rund; 50-Shee bridges Color: Stud Material: Colored Round; 8.8 Thread number. Product in Gewindetyp: Stahl x structures Plus 8.8Gewindetyp: Length mm End mining drill ''Zähne New Zähne Stud 2.56"; StudMaterial: and Inch: Stück large 65 8.8 8 Grad Double 200mmEoyyla 2000mAh / 2.40Wh Replace Battery for Philips N HQ487/B, N M12 to Steel Model Prism any Nuts please Jr.   Color:304 M10 answer you 5 give Stainles x we Wing communications satisfactory Metalworking Material: Number: 5-10pcs as M4 Writing will Ivory Product description Size:M10 M6 DIN315Type: purchase sure have soon entering your Machinery free equipment questions DIN315 Type: This after Plus us this 10pcs   Pads Nuts Applications: problems Legal and your . 8 Stainless M3 M8 fits by 9円 equipmenIf 50-Shee feel or electronic model Make contact number. Supplies: Steel Model M5 equipmen a Colored KHJK NutsApplications: possible. fits Butterfly


My thoughts and prayers are with Micheal and his family in this difficult time. Keep fighting and good luck with your recuperation Schumi, you'll win it.

"The prinicple is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

A bit about this site

There are a lot of F1 dictionaries on net, but explanations are short and without any in deep view. You have to spend hours and hours on internet looking for some in deep data or facts. For example check f1-country.com or Official F1 site, and you will understand what I’m talking about.

On other side is f1technical.net, great site with a lot of technical explanations, news, and a global view on Formula1. But again, dictionary with very short explanations. Anyway, you can learn a great deal of F1 from this site.

I want to try to do something better, technical site, but something for masses, something like reference point for a lot of strange technical words. I tried to do something like this on f1network.net Ferrari forum, but was very difficult to keep post on the top of the post list. It was not an ideal thing, so I decided to try to make my own site. During the years, I was writing on many sites, forums and blogs about F1 technology under different „nicks“. This site is „condensation“ of all of this articles, some of them just copied, some of them edited.

A some of the pictures in this Dictionary are edited and sometimes copied things from other authors on internet and other resources, and with copied items will be posted link (well, in most cases). But most of items are my originals. BTW, this site is not created for any monetary gain.

I get a lot of mails with this kind of question:

Hello! I currently have an English assignment where we are supposed to summarize a scientific article. I chose your article about blown diffusers. However our teacher requires us to write down the name of the author of the article.
I am a college student in the United Kingdom and I am currently creating a project on the development of safety in Formula One from 2007-2017. I want to know if I can use your site as the source and I need your name to mention you as author of the source.
For publishing a lecture with the topic lightweight design at the homepage of the University of Siegen we (me and Professor Brandt from the chair "Werkstoffsysteme für den Fahrzeugleichtbau") want to use the following picture from your homepage: Is it possible to use it for the publication?
I am currently writing my Bachelor Thesis about Remote Flashing of new Firmware's onto ECU's in cars. And I would like to use your page about ECU's http://www.formula1-dictionary.net/ecu.html as reference when talking about Formula One cars. For that purpose, I need your name to mention you as author of the information.
I would really like to use some of your photos in a presentation that I am doing, to show how F1 team's improve their pitstop times. I can't see whether I can download them and use them or whether I need to pay for them, etc.

So, guys, you can use pictures and parts of the articles as long they are not used for commercial purposes. Basically, you can't make money with them. I'm doing this entire job for free, no money earned, no commercials. So why would you. BUT IF YOU DO, I WANT AT LEAST A PART OF IT!!! I'M JOKING!! NOT, I CAN USE SOME EXTRA!!!
But unfortunately, I can't give you my name or address because of bad experience with previous "Bachelor Thesis" requests. Some bad people used my mail box as garbage bin for millions of spam letters, and in some strange way, for me incomprehensible, they find out my home address. Bad memories. But you can use my site address, site mail and my nick "SEAS" as reference. If there are some questions, do not hesitate to mail me.


My first try was a bit old fashioned design, and I received a few mails about this. This is my third try, and again, only design of pages is changed. I know it’s still not a perfect, but I will try to improve it with time. I will add items from time to time, so come here and check it out. Items will be added with time, depend on my free time. I have a family and other jobs, you know!

Formula 1 racing is all about passion. It’s sometimes weird sport, often twisted, but magnificent all the time. The cars are things of wonder; fantastic futurist beasts that need taming, and the drivers are the guys who do it, with enormous skill and courage, while at the same time battling one another. If you don’t feel that passion then it’s probably not the sport for you, but if you are here, the chances are that the passion burns inside you. 

I’m a Ferrari fan, but this site is not biased in any way. This is a site about Formula 1 and racing technology, and there, all teams are involved. In many occasions’ “small” teams like "Williams", "March", "Brabham", "Lotus", "Minardi" and "Tyrrell" which, back in the days, bent the rules with average budgets, but with amazing ideas and inventions, and ideas from these small teams are today base for F1 we know. It always amaze me what those teams can do with budget they have. Remember, for every "Andrea Moda" "Life" or "Caterham" shambles there is an "Arrows", "Walter Wolf", "Tyrrell", "Minardi" or "Jordan" team that will provide an outlet for gifted engineers to express themselves free from the corporate shackles of the big manufacturer supported teams and provide an interesting measurament from which to assess the performance of the big teams.

If you find something on this site you think is biased, you have to know that this site is only mine, is not sponsored by anybody and basically I don’t care. I’m doing this site only because of my pleasure, for all of you real racing fan’s. Few avatars doesn’t make site biased. On this site technical data are more important.

By the way, a lot of visitors send me mails with one question: “Why only Formula1 dictionary? Why not racing dictionary?” OK, I will try to expand the site. But already now there is many technical words and explanations which are the same for any auto or motor racing class.

And one more thing. English is not my "mother language". So be tolerant. There may be some misspelling or "pidgin English", but I'm doing my best.

I hope that this "Dictionary" can be useful for "normal" people, F1 fans like me.


I love this sport

"In F1, the first person you have to beat is your team-mate"


2021 team and driver line-up

(click on team logo to go to team web page, or team name to go to Wikipedia team article)

Mercedes - AMG Petronas F1

Car: Mercedes W12
44. Lewis Hamilton
77. Valtteri Bottas

Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow

Car: SF21
16. Charles Leclerc
55. Carlos Sainz Jnr

Red Bull Racing

Car: Red Bull RB16B
11. Sergio Perez
33. Max Verstappen

Alpine F1 Team

Car: A521
14. Fernando Alonso
31. Esteban Ocon

Uralkali Haas F1 Team

Car: Haas VF-21
09. Nikita Mazepin
47. Mick Schumacher

McLaren F1 Team

Car: McLaren MCL35M
03. Daniel Ricciardo
04. Lando Norris

Aston Martin F1 Team

Car: AMR21
05. Sebastian Vettel
18. Lance Stroll

AlfaRomeo Racing ORLEN

Car: AlfaRomeo C41
07. Kimi Räikkönen
99. Antonio Giovinazzi

Scuderia AlphaTauri
Car: AT02
10. Pierre Gasly
22. Yuki Tsunoda

  Williams Racing
Car: Williams FW43B
06. Nicholas Latifi
63. George Russell


Unlucky No. 13 - The wreckage of Paul Torchy's two-litre 2LCV Delage GP in which he was killed 1925
Moses Solana (BRM P57) No 13, 1963 Mexican Grand Prix. Mexico City, 11th position, retired.

 Unlucky No.13 is a very unusual starting number and the FIA and several other race organizers conspicuously avoid appointment of the number. In fact, the history of excluding No.13 as an entry number goes back to 1925 when Paul Torchy was killed and 1926, when Giulio Masetti died in a Maserati carrying the No.13 when taking part in the Targa Florio. Since then, the number is not issued by organizers of motorsport events, even though a driver has the right to request it. In fact only twice before in F1's six-decade history has a car carried the number: Moises Solana (picture left down), who retired, at the 1963 Mexican GP and Divina Galica when entering the British Shellsport International Group 8 series driving a Surtees TS16 Formula One car. Galica did manage to take third place at the Brands Hatch and second place at the Donington Park rounds. Galica also failed to qualify for the 1976 British GP carrying number 13.
And then, a new FIA regulation introduced from 2014 onwards is for drivers to have permanent number throughout their careers, with numbers 2 to 99 available with number 1 reserved for the defending World Champion, if he wants to use it. And Venezuelan Pastor Maldonado, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams, has elected to bring the number 13 back to Formula 1, even though not normally used due to its association with poor luck. Let’s hope the number proves luckier for Maldonado who says it has a long history in Venezuelan sport.
Before entering Formula One, he won the 2010 GP2 Series championship. He became the first Venezuelan to win a Formula One Grand Prix when he won the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix for Williams, from his first and only pole position. When it comes to Maldonado's reputation, Maldonado gained a reputation over his career as somewhat wild, accident-prone and unpredictable on the circuit. He was nicknamed "Crashtor" and a website called Has Maldonado Crashed Today? was created to track his many mishaps. Out of 96 grands prix, there were 29 retirements, and he incurred 39 penalties in his colourful F1 career, that's one every 2.4 races and 12 were for causing a collision.

2014/15/16/17 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules

The 2014 season brings with it the biggest revisions to the Formula One technical regulations I can remember. Here is a short list of most important changes, and how 2014 rules compare with rules in action during 2013 Formula 1 season. The new rules have presented a huge challenge for the teams and engine manufacturers. Almost every single part of the car is a new design, from the front wing right back to the diffuser. It's been a massive job to accommodate all the changes of the power unit, especially new cooling requirements of the power unit, and what is the best way to optimize it in the chassis. So, let's se it.


You may copy and use any of the content of this site provided you make a clear link on your web site or printed matter to 'Formula 1 dictionary" as the source of that information. Also, you can not use my material and articles to make any money. I'm not making any money with this site, so why would you. I endeavour to ensure that the information I publish is free of other copyrights but it is essential that you check this for yourself before using. It is never my intention to deliberately infringe the copyright of any other person or organisation. If you have any concerns then please use the "Mail me" and I will investigate and take whatever action is necessary to rectify. As a volunteer and strictly non-profit making my only concern is to preserve information for future generations.


"The principle is the simple, one man is Champion, the others aren’t" — Niki Lauda

Books to read

When we talk about legends in F1, Murray Walker is one of the few to earn the status outside of the cockpit. His passion for the sport was infectious, and never failed to make people smile. He was a master of his trade and will always be the voice of F1. God's Speed Murray and thanks for so much.
My thoughts go out to his family at this difficult time.

Terrible news about passing of Sabine Schmitz, a proper driving legend who'll be sadly missed by many. A fierce competitor, talented racer and "Queen of the Nürburgring" was an inspiration to many. She was the only woman to win the epic 24-hour at Nürburgring. She won in 1996 and then again the next year.
She suffered a longstanding illness with cancer.
She was 51. RIP Sabine.

Questions of race have made me tired since I understand what police brutality was, especially in America. I feel that what happened in the US was just a spark, that sparked everywhere ... I do think George Floyd's death sparked it across the world and I think it's amazing. Black Lives Matter is an activist movement which began as a hashtag #BlackLivesMatter after George Zimmerman was acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed African-American teenager killed in Florida in July 2013.
Black Lives Matter is an inarguable demand for justice, equality, and reform regardless of race, skin color, or religion.

Some useful links:

- f1technical.net, a great site with a lot of technical information’s and explanations. Site is updated daily with news from F1 word.

 - autosport.com, This site is a legend. A bible for racing lovers. News from all around the word. Unfortunately, to get access to all news, interviews and to open the site completely you should be subscribed to Autosport magazine. Anyway, great read.

- JA.F1 site (or blog) ovned by ITV Sport’s lead commentator on Formula 1 James Allen

- joesaward is the Joe Saward official blog about Formula 1 world. Joe is an journalist, who write primarily about politics in and around motorsport, specifically on the FIA Formula 1 World Championship

 - planetf1, another site with many different articles, news and statistics. Biased toward British teams, but anyway good read.

 - gurneyflap.com, Great history site. You can learn a lot from this site. Pictures, cars and many many more. Great.

4ormula1 is a database of Formula 1 history and statistics of drivers, teams, grand prix, and all results since 1950.

Enjoy range of Podcasts and Articles on Motorsport. Every week a Formula one chat on Missed Apex F1 Podcast with F1 journalist Joe Saward and tech Analyst Matthew Somerfield as guests. Also the exciting all electric racing series formula E on eRadio Show and Bike Show Lean Angle Podcast.

-Racecar Engineering, an online magazine with a lot to learn from, a lot of technical information’s and explanations

 - fia.com, La Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, representing the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. Head organisation and ruler in auto sport.

 - wikipedia.org, I don’t believe that I have to tell you anything about this site. It’s not about Formula 1 technology, but you can learn a lot about that too.

 - carbibles.com, a great site for normal car users. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets.

- Daretobedifferent.org Susie Wolff and UK governing body of UK motorsport have joined forces to launch Dare To Be Different, a high-profile new initiative which is about increasing female participation, not just on the track but in all aspects of the sport.